Konstantinov Efremovich Gregory , MP of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR.

Topic: Tribune
Author of publication: RIA "National Alliance"

Posted on: 31/01/2014 11:38

Story in the first person :

Konstantinov Efremovich Gregory , MP of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR.

Few who can witness the era , participating in the turning milestones of history. Konstantinov Efremovich Gregory was a member of such events : in 1990 - elected a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR on the first alternative elections . At the First Congress of Peoples Deputies - on the Committee on Women, Family Welfare , motherhood and childhood. In October 1992 - elected to the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR , worked there before the tragic events of October 1993 .

Biography Gregory Efremoch typical of millions of Soviet citizens : born into a large family of farmers in a remote village Zapadnodvinskogo district Kalinin ( now Tver ) region on the border with Smolensk and Vitebsk regions. After graduating from high school he entered the Civil Engineering in Luki Pskov ( Pskov now ) area. He graduated with honors in a building technician industrial and civil construction . In the last year and married in March 1960 the young family was sent to the Yaroslavl region in the state farm " New North " Yaroslavl region . State Farm has expanded its borders at the expense of joining the collective farms " Sunrise ", " Friendship ", " Boatmen ", " Star". Recent graduates have joined the process of economic growth in the region of builders. How often was at that time , the young people decided to continue his studies and entered the All-Union Correspondence Institute of Civil Engineering . Then the student called to serve in the Soviet army . Three years have passed at Kapustin Yar in the construction troops. It was good practice . Konstantinov went on to study at the same time : the command of the military unit twice a year, provides students with a tunic 10 -day holiday for the exams . In the army, he studied for three degree .

   In November 1963 demobilized and returned to the farm , which became native , began working senior superintendent . Study completed in 1966 by civil engineer industrial and civil construction . By this time the family grew up the son . Party leadership and the district director of the farm AA Ivlieva , with views of the Konstantinov as a prospective manager, offered him a year to learn the All-Union Agricultural Institute of distance education at the Faculty of Economics . He finished it with a recommendation to continue their studies in graduate school. But he was fascinated by a chore .

So , in 1964 , began to rise , as they say now , social " elevator ": first foreman , then deputy director for construction . Since 1969, the director of the farm " New North ." In 1974, of the poultry farm stands "North" and he was appointed its director. Then it was all different. The whole system of government to work for the man . In the village of Oaks Yaroslavl region to build housing for workers and specialists, for the younger generation - kindergartens, school , sports complex with swimming pool. Opened a savings bank , medical center , post office. Great importance on youth : State Farm gave recommendations and fellows each year up to 20 people went to study in institutes and schools . With diplomas and knowledge they returned to their native economy. Many learned in absentia. State Farm developed rapidly : growing number of poultry built Nekrasovskoye department , which in 1990 was able to produce 4,500 tons of duck meat per year. In 1978-1980 he headed Konstantinov Yaroslavl Trust Ptitseprom Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation. But even two years without the owners eyes affected the welfare of the poultry farm . And Konstantinov has set for itself , that cabinet work is not suitable - not to understand the results of labor , and the factory is simple and clear.

nder Gorbachev changed the shape of poultry farming. Minister of Agriculture

of the RSFSR signed a decree on the status of the enterprise as a " national enterprise

"North" , " the transfer of ownership of all property of the collective . After the collapse of the Soviet Union , this document did not recognize the Democrats . The company was transformed into a production cooperative with property shares.

In March 1990 , the first competitive elections to the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR.

The district number 774 ( Frunze district of Yaroslavl and Yaroslavl region ) were registered candidates AI Tsvetkov ( Yaroslavl TV reporter ) , Head of the Department of Public Education of the Frunze district of Yaroslavl , General VA Prudnikov ( muscovite ) and GE Konstantinov . In the second round , which took place in March 1990. , Went AI Tsvetkov and GE Konstantinov . Majority of the votes in the constituency scored Gregory Efremovich .

Already at the I Congress of Peoples Deputies ( from May 16 to June 22, 1990 at the Grand Kremlin Palace ) , it was evident that occur planned measures aimed at eliminating the Communist Party from running the country . Recalls Konstantinov, they were placed in a hotel "Russia" ( now a hotel razed , and then she stood in the center of the capital) . From it to the Kremlin , where the congress of deputies , were people with provocative posters around the hotel - with the homeless tent . We do not know who put them there , but obviously not free , they were there . It was a moral influence on the deputies. During the meeting the delegation of Leningrad and Leningrad region put on their tables, white, blue and red flags that were not state attributes. At the request of the chairman of the Congress of Deputies Kazakov ( until the election of the chairman of the Supreme Council of the Congress led by the Chairman of the CEC ) demanded that the commandant of the Kremlin to restore order in the courtroom. Pins removed .

- From the Yaroslavl region already at the First Congress of Peoples Deputies clearly distinguished two groups - Communists and Democrats . Partisanship stuck Vladimir A. Kovalev, Vladimir Mikhailovich Dorofeev , Anatoly K. Rudenko, Yuri D. Rudkin and me. Vladimir Dmitrievich Solovyov of Poshekhonov and Anatoly Greshnevikov of Borisogleb long to decide who and what they support . Vladimir G. Varuhin from Rybinsk , Nikolai Nepryaev ( CPSU member ) with the " Motor Plant " and Metropolitan Platon ( Vladimir Udovenko ) Archbishop of Yaroslavl and Rostov - explicit opponents of the existing system . The day before the election of the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR ( the candidates for the post were IK Polozkov , First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation , and Boris Yeltsin ) deputies Party members were invited to a meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev in the meeting room of the Central Committee of the CPSU Kremlin deputies hear opinions . Gorbachev said more than 40 minutes , until it is interrupted by a deputy from the Rostov region question: "Mikhail Sergeyevich . You invited us to consult. Speak for more than 40 minutes and no one has not heard . A meeting is going to end . " Gorbachev promised several deputies . Question asked and Yaroslavl deputy Anatoly K. Rudenko , "Mikhail Sergeyevich . If tomorrow we elect a chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin , then you are sure that Russia will go the right way ? If you elect Polozkova Ivan Kuzmich , then you are sure that the Kremlin is well protected ? If you do not elect anybody how long we sit in the Kremlin? ". Gorbachev after a pause said something like : "Tomorrow difficult day with you, and it is difficult for me. I am going to Canada to negotiate. Yeltsin is a bulldozer in the hands of Democrats. Goodbye comrades "- says Gregory Efremovich . - The next day, by a margin of six votes was elected President Yeltsin . During this period, pressure was exerted on the deputies : unidentified people called and persuaded to vote for Yeltsin. I was approached by a middle-aged man . Was dressed simply , on the shoulder - shoulder bag , from which protruded a bottle of yogurt and a loaf of bread . Said that it would be necessary to support the " Democratic Russia ". I replied that no it does not have a relationship. I think that such approaches have been to others. Were provocateurs . One person named assistant Solovyov , came up to me and started talking about promoting him to purchase a marine vessel . I told him that he had the wrong address . After I exit the need for such approaches has disappeared. The alignment of forces and behavior of each deputy undecided. But then, many have changed their understanding of what is happening . June 12th Congress adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Soviet Federative Socialist Republic , where the declared determination to create a democratic constitutional state in update of the USSR. I voted against the declaration , knowing that a time bomb under the existence of the USSR. And so it happened later .

 II Extraordinary Congress of Peoples Deputies was convened in November 1990 by a majority of deputies to consider the revival of the Russian village.

- MPs strongly criticized the government. Suggested measures to improve the situation of farmers - says Gregory Efremovich . - Speaking at the session , I made suggestions for the development of the Russian countryside : - write off debt on bank loans USSR collective farms, state farms and other agricultural enterprises , regardless of their affiliation , transfer the ownership of property and land their teams . Were adopted ordinances that have remained on the shelves officials. Reinforced propaganda began farming. Continued destruction and elimination of collective and state farms .

   The initiators of the III Congress of Peoples Deputies were communists . Congress convened in March 1991 to consider the socio- economic and political situation in Russia.

Atmosphere - tense. Was an attempt to disrupt the work of the Congress : Democrats of the deputies left the room after the announced proposals to express distrust Yeltsin and the government. But most of the hall left , the work continued .

- The feeling was that goes wrong . MPs from the region came to the Congress

to work . Seen that move around the Kremlin machine loaded with sand. For what?

Again another provocation ? Whom it is organized , to what end? Demanded an explanation from the mayor. Answer kept YM Luzhkov , while the deputy mayor of Moscow. but deputies

from him heard nothing - says GF Konstantinov . - Opposition Communists and Democrats ended adoption decree which granted unlimited rights to the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Yeltsin. With this Congress, he almost became "president" - the autocratic Russian leader . And the rule of law over the law of the RSFSR USSR allowed Yeltsin and his team gathered in the Bialowieza Forest and the death sentence to the USSR . After the signing of the Belovezhskaya agreements began to talk about the betrayal of Yeltsin.

 Fourth Congress , convened in May 1991 , roughly discussed the introduction

the post of president in the RSFSR . Most of the deputies , no matter what views they are stuck , do not understand where is the seat of the President . There Congress - the supreme legislative

power. And it has already ruled Yeltsin . Have a government - the executive branch . quo warranto

still lacks Yeltsin? Yet Congress adopts a resolution on the introduction of the post of president .

- The fifth congress of the oath he says " right to serve his country and people." The second

stage - (28 October -2 November 1991 ) Congress declares radical economic reform

and authorizes President Boris Yeltsin emergency powers for a period of one

year. It is these powers he used , and two years later disbanded Congress

Peoples Deputies. September 21, 1993 , Yeltsin signed a decree which interrupted the implementation of legislative, administrative and control functions of the Congress of Peoples Deputies and the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation . He struck first and as no one expected , because all the members were of civilian professions , they were preparing for edification, and not for destruction

social system - says Gregory Efremovich . - . Did not occur on this turn of events . Maybe by Yeltsin and was payment by surprise . September 22 was urgently a meeting of the Supreme Council adopted a resolution Yeltsin was ousted in a flagrant violation of the Constitution. The duties conferred on the President , Vice -President of AV Rutskoi. President Yeltsins actions were assessed as a coup . September 24th Congress of Peoples Deputies fully endorses the actions of the Supreme Council for his ouster from power and recognition of the incumbent president as a coup .

   In opposition to the deposed Yeltsin and the Congress of Peoples Deputies pulled Muscovites and people who came to the capital. The building was surrounded by the military and the police , inside - armed soldiers . Whom they are subject , no one can say . We were in a building where one of the guards were police officers . They do not hinder our passage into the building , but warned that the back we can not quit there . This was an allusion to the physical elimination of Deputies, if this team goes . I decided for myself that without the use of military force will not do here and left on September 28th hour mother in the Tver region . There, in the village, on the radio October 3 heard about storming City Hall and Ostankino. Returned to Moscow. Supreme Council building still steaming around there were tanks . Approached the captain asked to do miss shooting camcorder got uncensored response to the threat that can be also arrested. Arrest did not wait , did shoot with the Crimean Bridge , which is stored as a memory of those events .

    Ceased to exist because the Soviet system . Yeltsins coup changed the system to a parliamentary republic - presidential . So he made them received additional powers.

  After the coup, Democrats on Novy Arbat Street in Moscow formed a committee , there were

Poll deputies - members of the Supreme Council , do not fit into the format of the new government : will they work in the federal or local government , or to return to her former position .

Konstantinov returned to the Oaks . Fallen on hard times , it was necessary to survive .

Since then, much time has passed . People Gregory Efremoch respected until now. he

- Honored Worker of Agriculture of the Russian Federation , awarded the Order -

Red Banner of Labor , Friendship, Honor. He was conferred the title of " Honorary Citizen of Yaroslavl municipal area ." Keeps as a relic of the national identity of the deputy of the Supreme Council and the Council of Nationalities , diplomatic passport , which never used , cassette - with video from the personal archive with the Congress of Peoples Deputies in March 1991 and the burnt house of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR .

Political past recalls mission - none of the deputies of the Supreme Soviet of the last thought that it all turns . Many of the deputies , in fact, were the Soviet people : believe him, did not know about

elected "dirty" technologies , no thought of betrayal at such a high

the state level. They are faced with a serious force , fueled by outside, could not hold the last line of socialism.

Until now, much is not clear in the events of those days . Ever know the truth?

Victoria Sotskova

RIA "National Alliance" 

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